Tree Surgeons Southwick

Southwick Tree Surgery and Tree Care Services

Southwick Tree Surgeons (BN42): Many homes in Southwick have gardens that have trees in them. Even though trees provide a home for wildlife, are essential for the health of the planet and are wonderful to look at, they need to be cared for and properly maintained. In addition to regular maintenance like pruning, trees can occasionally get overgrown or diseased. When the weather is windy trees can even become hazardous, as branches or even entire sections of tree can snap off and plummet to the earth, potentially causing damage to cars, buildings or even people. If your Southwick property happens to have trees growing on it, the obligation of caring for them is yours and yours alone.

Southwick Tree Surgery Quotes

There might be quite a few tree care processes that you can tackle yourself if you are a gardening enthusiast, in particular with hedges, fruit trees, smaller trees and bushes. If you are confident, know what you're doing and have the suitable tools, you can attempt the pruning and trimming of branches that can be easily reached from the ground. However, if your trees are larger and can only be reached by climbing or ladders, it is recommended that you call in professional help.

Tree Surgeon Southwick West Sussex

There are numerous risks involved with working at height up trees, and besides you falling and hurting yourself, you might also drop equipment or heavy branches that harm anyone standing or walking beneath. If you can picture yourself balancing precariously up a tree wielding a razor sharp handsaw or powered-up chainsaw, that ought to be sufficient to put you off the idea once and for all.

Even though you might believe that a gardener is the right person to call for this kind of task, most of them aren't really competent in the appropriate procedures of tree care. The tradesperson who'll have the appropriate tools, qualifications and equipment for any kind of tree care work, is a tree surgeon. As determined by the trees you have in your garden in Southwick, and the extent of the work concerned, some special tools might be necessary including harnesses, chipping machines and chainsaws.

A professional tree surgeon in Southwick must be trained in the use of such tools and machinery and whilst a lot of folks in Southwick boast of being tree surgeons, you will need to pick one that is thoroughly qualified in arboriculture and can show the following accreditations:

  • CS30 (NPTC 201/202) - Maintenance of the chainsaw, on site preparation, and basic cross-cutting.
  • CS38 (NPTC 206/306) - Climb a tree and perform aerial rescue.
  • CS31 (NPTC 203) - Fell and process small trees.
  • CS39 (NPTC 308) - Aerial cutting of trees using free-fall techniques.

Tree surgeons should also have basic first-aid qualifications. It is important that all professional tree surgery in Southwick conforms to British Standards BS3998 (2010) guidelines.

These are the minimum certifications that you ought to be on the lookout for when you're hunting for a reputable tree surgeon in Southwick. If when asked about these qualifications, the person you're thinking of using is uncooperative and vague, you should find somebody else. Tree surgeons in Southwick with more experience could also hold qualifications in things such as forestry, forest management, countryside management, arboriculture and woodland ecology & conservation.

Tree Surgeons Southwick (BN42)

Once properly trained a tree surgeon in Southwick will be capable of completing a wide selection of tree related tasks including things like pest control, tree surgery, tree removal, disease identification, the protection of trees from grazing, tree planting, transplanting, stump grinding and tree felling.

For Southwick home owners the most likely services they'll be in need of will be crown thinning, tree felling, crown reduction, damage restoration, crown raising, crown cleaning, pruning or root pruning.

For the safety of themselves, the homeowner and the general public, a seasoned Southwick tree surgeon should be skilled in using lowering devices, pole saws, slacklines, harnesses, wood shredders, rigging ropes, rigging pulleys, stump grinding equipment, loppers, chain saws, climbing ropes, winches, and other tree surgery tools. If your so-called 'tree surgeon' arrives on the job with little more than a handsaw and a step-ladder, the alarm bells should be ringing, and unless you're happy with a bodge job you need to send them packing.

Click For Tree Surgery Quotations in the Southwick Area

Another thing to consider before beginning serious work on your trees, is whether or not they've got a TPO (Tree Preservation Order) on them. If you make contact with your local authority, they'll inform you whether any trees on your property are subject to a TPO. Your tree surgeon should be able to give you advice on this and help you with any checks.

Tree Surgery Southwick (01273)

When you have come to the conclusion that you will need professional help with your tree care, you'll need to look for a good tree surgeon in Southwick. The techniques for achieving this are varied and many. You could ask friends and family if they know a person they are willing to recommend. You can search online and check out the web sites of local Southwick tree surgeons operating in your area. You can see what the trade portals provide you with by submitting your requirements on Rated People, Quotatis or Trustatrader. You could check local newspapers, local directories or the Yellow Pages, to find out what they reveal. This should furnish you with several possibilities.

If you aim to have the best of the best, you should try to find an Arboricultural Association (ARB) approved tree surgeon who will have been thoroughly checked for:

  • Compliance with health and safety legislation of arboricultural contracting.
  • High standards of service to clients.
  • Working standards, operations and knowledge.
  • A good knowledge of trees and tree management.
  • Compliance with current arboricultural legislation.

Sad to say, there are frequently stories in the press about rogue traders and cowboys who offer tree surgery services, so once again, asking for verification of qualifications is essential to protect yourself against these sort of scammers who might be operating in Southwick, and sticking with trusted local companies is the best idea. As has already been explained, this is a hazardous job and should not be performed by anybody who is not fully trained.

Furthermore, your trees are precious and if the work is not done by somebody who is competent they may be permanently damaged or harmed. If you aim to maintain the wellbeing of your trees, stick with the pros, because pruning, treating or lopping trees at the wrong time of year or in an improper way can have disastrous consequences.

Local Tree Surgeons Near Southwick West Sussex

You shouldn't just get one company in and just accept the first quote you are given, try to get at least 3 or 4 quotes from different tree surgeons in Southwick, so you can make a better judgement. Obtaining quotes is just one step in the process of finding a good tree surgeon in Southwick, there is additional research that still needs to be carried out.

Try to ask plenty of delving questions, if they answer confidently and give the impression that they know what they're talking about - there's a good chance that they do! Verify everything that's included in the price you've been quoted, and also ensure that they have the required insurance. One vital thing that you'll need to know is whether the removal of logs, branches and waste is included in the quoted price. Subject to the scale of the assignment, quite a bit of waste could be created.

It may also be a good idea to ask for some references from former customers. If a tree surgery firm in Southwick is reliable they'll be delighted to supply references and even some images of their work. To find out how a company operates and how happy it's customer base is, you should also check out it's Facebook page.

Click For Tree Surgery Quotes in Southwick West Sussex

Local Southwick tree surgery services will probably have the postcode BN42 and the dialling code 01273. They will work in Southwick itself, along with nearby areas like Fulking, Storrington, Portslade, Upper Beeding, Shoreham-by-Sea, Worthing, Findon, Goring, Fishergate, Woodmancote, Broadwater, Wiston, Lancing, Hove, Small Dole, Sompting, Ashington, Coombes, and these postcodes: BN42 4AB, BN42 4AT, BN42 4DG, BN41 1DT, BN42 4NX, BN42 4FH, BN42 4GR, BN42 4PQ, BN42 4NS, BN42 4RN.

For this sort of assistance it is certainly a good idea to employ an approved tree surgeon. Southwick home and property owners can benefit from the know-how and expertise offered by a trained professional.

Obtaining Help and Information

When talking to local Southwick tree surgeons, you need to ask questions such as: Can you give references from former clients? Have you got employment and public liability insurance? Do your workforce and you have the appropriate certificates and qualifications (for tree care and the use of chainsaws)? Do you have membership of a trusted professional body (such as The International Society of Arboriculture or the Arboricultural Association)? Does your work meet the BS3998 British Standard? Will you provide me with an estimate in writing? to be certain that they know precisely what they are up to and that they won't cause permanent damage to your valuable trees. You ought to think twice about hiring a tree surgeon if you do not get acceptable responses to any of these basic questions.

Tree Surgery Information

You'll want to visit the AA (Arboricultural Association) site to find tons of handy details about ways to choose a decent tree surgeon, as well as a searchable directory of licensed tree surgeons in the United Kingdom. A further fantastic source of information is the International Society of Arboriculture site which has a "verify credentials" tool and a "find an arborist" tool. You'll also find loads of information about tree surgery as a profession by checking out the trusty Wikipedia "Arborist" page here. To help save time and energy you could also try using one of the much publicised trade portals like Local Heroes or Rated People, where professional credentials have been already verified and customer testimonials are available to look at. A Government supported organisation where you can also track down reputable tradespeople such as tree surgeons, comes in the form of Trustmark. Providing a level playing field of confidence and quality, Trustmark pays attention to excellent customer service, technical proficiency and exceptional trading practices.

Invasive Tree Root Problems Southwick

Invasive Tree Roots Southwick West Sussex

When they're growing too near to your property in Southwick, some large trees have particularly aggressive root systems, and can cause issues. Damaged foundations, lifting patios and blocked drains, are among the most widespread issues that you may run across. Extremely intrusive root systems are found in tree species like maples, sycamores, elms and willows.

If you have plans to grow any new trees on your property, it is recommended that you make certain that they are placed a fair distance from your drainage system, your home, pathways and patios. If you're already experiencing issues with existing trees that are growing too near to your home, you can get advice and guidance by contacting a local Southwick tree surgeon.

You definitely should not try and solve this yourself by simply hacking away at the invasive roots, because this could severely threaten the health of the tree or even kill it. So that the damage is reduced, and the tree can still get enough water and nutrients to survive and thrive, a skilled arborist in Southwick will know which roots can be safely cut, and which roots should be left in place.

Tree and shrub roots quite often cause structural issues in subterranean drains, as sewage pipes provide a constant source of nutrients and water. Joint failure and even blockages can arise, when teeny roots compromise a drainage system's joints, establish themselves and grow into massive root balls. To get rid of the roots that are causing the problem, specialist root removal services will be provided by many local tree surgeons, who'll employ manual rod clearance, high pressure jetting or electro-mechanical equipment.

Dead-Wooding Southwick

The practice of dead-wooding (or deadwooding) is an important element of tree management and care in Southwick, and any professional tree surgeon will be able to offer you this service. When there's a risk of dead and rotting branches falling on pedestrians, homes or vehicles, dead-wooding will be conducted to carefully remove the offending tree limbs. There are a number of reasons behind why the branches of a tree die off, the most commonplace being disease, damage to the root system, pest attacks or a lack of light.

While the usual reason for getting rid of dead branches is one of safety, it is also done to benefit the tree, and for aesthetic reasons. A tree that has an excessive amount of dead, damaged and dying branches is prone to insect infestation and disease, therefore you can greatly improve a tree's health by eliminating these impaired branches. Trees that have a lot of dead wood also look ugly, so to make it more attractive, this can all be cut off.

Only substantial dead branches will be taken out in most instances, as a minimal risk is posed by the smaller ones. Nonetheless, any dead limbs that are in excess of fifty millimetres in diameter may need to be removed in areas where a tree hangs over a highway, a park, a garden, a public area or a property in Southwick.

Crown Thinning Southwick

Tree Care Southwick

Taking away small living branches located on the outer area of the crown, but not altering the overall size or shape of the tree, is known as crown thinning. This is done to generate a consistent leaf density, which itself achieves specified goals such as: to minimize the wind resistance of the tree, to enable more light throughout, to lessen the stress put on certain limbs as a consequence of gravity, ice, wind, or snow, to lessen the weight of the crown of the tree or to prevent the tree from uprooting when it's windy. The over-all size and structure of the tree shouldn't be transformed by crown thinning, and should just bring about a uniform foliage thickness encompassing uniformly spaced branches. You will be able to find crown thinning services in Fulking, Storrington, Portslade, Upper Beeding, Shoreham-by-Sea, Worthing, Findon, Goring, Fishergate, Woodmancote, Broadwater, Wiston, Lancing, Hove, Small Dole, Sompting, Ashington, Coombes, and Southwick. (Tags: Crown Thinning Southwick, Crown Thin Southwick, Tree Crown Thinning Southwick)

Tree Surveys Southwick

Tree surveys might be required for a number of reasons, but the most common is when development or property extension is concerned. As outlined by BS5837 British Standards, if you happen to be clearing a piece of land to make space for an extension to an existing property or a brand new house in Southwick, and there are trees standing on that land, you will need to implement a professional tree survey. Tree surveys on both private and public property in Southwick, should be conducted by a certified tree surgeon or tree surveyor.

A broad range of information about the trees within a defined area will be gleaned by a properly conducted tree survey. For example:

  • The expected lifespan of the trees.
  • The age of the trees.
  • The number of trees (those of over 75mm diameter 1.5m from the ground).
  • A tree reference number for every tree.
  • The physiological and structural health of the trees.
  • The diameter of each tree (measured 1.5m above the ground).
  • The species of trees on the site.
  • The existence of any TPOs.
  • Guidelines for tree management.
  • The spread of branches to East, South, West and North.
  • The height of each tree in metres.

A tree survey will likely not be necessary if you are not changing the property's footprint nor are you changing the access points or service lines of an existing home or property in Southwick. (Tags: Southwick Tree Surveys, Tree Surveys Southwick, Arboricultural Surveyors Southwick, Tree Survey Southwick).

Dutch Elm Disease

Destroying tree stocks and killing tens of millons of precious elm trees all over the British Isles during the past 50 yrs or more, Dutch Elm Disease (Ophiostoma novo-ulmi) isn't so common now, as it was in the past. Accidentally imported into the British Isles from North America (Canada) in the late 1960s, Dutch Elm Disease is spread by the elm bark beetle (Scolytus) and caused by the fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi.

Its rapid spread was ascribed mainly to elm products such as crates, mulching bark, saplings, and firewood logs with the bark still attached, being transported around the British Isles. Believed to have originated in Asia (possibly Japan), Dutch Elm Disease didn't only affect trees in Britain, but also destroyed elm stocks in continental Europe and North America.

The first signs of DED are:

  • New shoots that die back from the tips.
  • Clusters of leaves turning yellow and wilting.
  • Twigs that turn into a "shepherd's crook" shape.
  • Twigs with dark streaks beneath the bark.

It usually starts to appear in early summer.

As there are now hardly any large elms in the British countryside, the beetle's favourite habitat has been largely decimated, the result of which has been a slowing down of this disease. There is an ongoing project for the propagation of young saplings which are resistant to DED.

If you've got elms on your property in Southwick, and have suspicions they might be infected with Dutch Elm Disease, contact your neighbourhood tree surgeon for advice, or request a diagnosis from the THDAS (Tree Health Diagnostic & Advisory Service).

(Tags: Dutch Elm Disease Southwick, Signs of Dutch Elm Disease, Spotting Dutch Elm Disease).

Stump Grinding

Stump Grinding Southwick

It is important to ensure that you employ a tree surgeon with the appropriate machinery and knowhow, when you need to get specialist services like stump grinding undertaken in Southwick. Seasoned tree surgeons will be able to grind out every last bit of tree stump to twelve inches or more below ground level. Grinding down roots and stumps very close to walls and buildings while avoiding damage, can only be done if your chosen tree surgeon has got the use of the correct machinery. This purpose built grinding equipment is so multifaceted that it can even be used to eradicate stumps which are tucked away in alleys, passageways and other virtually inaccessible spots. It can involve a herculean effort to eradicate the stumps of large trees, where the stump and major roots grow down to a considerable depth, making the task even more problematic if you don't have the proper gear. (Tags: Stump Grinding Southwick, Tree Stump Removal Southwick, Stump Removal Southwick)

Tree Preservation Orders (TPOs) Southwick

Before you do any major work on your trees in Southwick, you must make certain that none of them have Tree Preservation Orders (TPOs) If you get in touch with your local planning authority, they'll tell you whether any trees on your property are protected by a Tree Preservation Order. Local authority consent is needed if wilful destruction, topping, cutting down, wilful damage, removal, lopping or uprooting is intended on any tree which is covered by a Tree Preservation Order. Your tree surgeon will be able to advise you on this and help you out with any checks.

For those of you whose home is within a conservation area in Southwick, no less than six weeks notice in writing has to be given to the local authority if you plan to carry out any work on a tree with a trunk diameter of 75mm or more (1.5m from the ground).

Vegetation Management

Vegetation Control

It's not merely the maintenance and removal of trees that your local Southwick tree surgeon will be happy to assist you with, but also any sort of rampant plant growth that's clogging up your garden. Some tree care professionals will be delighted to cut down shrubs, bushes, weeds and overgrown vegetation which may be taking hold around walls, paths, driveways, buildings or sheds, and causing a pain. If you're to manage your garden effectively then all of this excess growth ought to be cut down frequently, and if you find you have the inclination and time then this is a task you could achieve yourself if you are reasonably fit, or you can ask your local tree surgeon to come every few months to keep it in check. The management of vegetation is a must if you're going to have easy and safe entry to every section of the garden and if this isn't done the vegetation and plants will soon get out of control and take a lot of the enjoyment out of your garden. Aside from everything else the garden will also look much better when properly maintained. (Tags: De-Vegetation Services Southwick, Vegetation Management Southwick, Vegetation Control Southwick)

Tree Stump Removal Southwick

When you have a tree cut down from your garden in Southwick, unless agreed with the tree surgeon, you'll be left with a tree stump to deal with. You may be contemplating using the tree stump as a garden seat for instance, and might be happy to leave it in position until it eventually rots away. However, a big stump could take quite a few years to break down, and might even produce new suckers in an attempt to regrow itself. Protruding tree stumps can also be an eyesore, be a trip hazard, and can attract harmful pests.

Stump grinding or stump removal are the 2 primary alternatives, if you do decide to do away with the stump totally. In the following paragraphs we will be focusing on the stump removal option rather than stump grinding.

Digging out by hand, chemical treatments or burning, are the three main techniques for getting rid of a tree stump. If you're intending to tackle a stump yourself, the use of any of these strategies may be possible. If you are intending to get a tree surgeon to perform the job, they are normally going to favour the aforementioned stump grinding method, although a chemically based treatment like eco-plugging might be suggested.

Digging Out by Hand: The method of digging out a stump by hand is fairly self-explanatory, and calls for shoveling out out as much earth as possible from around the base and roots, cutting any main roots with a chainsaw, and ultimately freeing the stump so that it can be lifted out and removed. A winch could be required to complete this procedure. This tends to be laborious and exhausting work, and should not be attempted unless you are fit and healthy.

Chemical Stump Killers: Chemical treatment calls for the use of a strong chemical liquid like Vitax SBK Stump Killer, Resolva Xtra Tough Tree Stump Killer or Roundup Tree Stump Remover. Avoid contact with the skin when using any of these chemical solutions, and also try not to inhale. You should abide by the manufacturer's directions, for rates, timings and applications. This is a long, rather than short term stump removal solution, as it can take quite a few weeks or even months to completely rot away, subject to the size of the stump. It will still need to be chopped up and dug out with a spade and axe once it has completely rotted away.

Tree Stump Removal by Burning: Be careful if you use this technique for stump removal, since it can be fairly dangerous and could conflict with local laws. You'll need to drill some 1" holes into the stump, and pour in some vegetable oil, you'll need to keep the holes topped up for several days until the stump has been totally saturated. The stump is then heaped up with logs or charcoal and set alight. You or someone will have to continually supervise this until the fire has died out. Make certain that the fire is extinguished as soon as it's totally burned out. You can then dig out the roots and stump ashes after it has completely cool.

You will find there are various other burning solutions, such as digging out under the stump and setting a fire in the hollowed-out root bowl. If your tree stump is in close proximity to buildings, fences or other trees, you should never use any of the stump burning procedures.

(Tags: Chemical Stump Killers Southwick, Tree Stump Removal Southwick, Removing Tree Stumps Southwick, Removal of Tree Stumps Southwick).

Tree Surgery Tasks Southwick

Tree Surgery Tasks Southwick UK

Southwick tree surgeons can generally help you with brush cutting services, hedge reduction, coppicing in Southwick, tree management, tree reduction, commercial tree care Southwick, site clearance in Southwick, tree pruning, eco plug treatments Southwick, tree replanting, tree maintenance in Southwick, tree transplanting, tree staking Southwick, vegetation management, hedge planting, tree removal, tree waste removal Southwick, damage restoration Southwick, safety inspections, stump grinding in Southwick, tree planning Southwick, air spading, hedge lowering Southwick, tree surveys, crown lifting Southwick, retrenchment pruning in Southwick, drop crotching Southwick, landscape clearance, root grinding, felling of storm damaged trees Southwick, tree cutting, tree fertilising in Southwick, tree lopping, tree lightening protection Southwick, root removal in Southwick and other tree surgeon services in Southwick, West Sussex. Listed are just a small portion of the activities that are carried out by tree surgeons. Southwick professionals will tell you about their whole range of services.

Contact a Tree Surgeon Southwick

Tree Surgeons Near Southwick: Also find: Sompting tree surgeons, Coombes tree surgeons, Ashington tree surgeons, Portslade tree surgeons, Woodmancote tree surgeons, Upper Beeding tree surgeons, Shoreham-by-Sea tree surgeons, Lancing tree surgeons, Fishergate tree surgeons, Broadwater tree surgeons, Findon tree surgeons, Hove tree surgeons, Storrington tree surgeons, Small Dole tree surgeons, Fulking tree surgeons, Goring tree surgeons, Wiston tree surgeons, Worthing tree surgery and more. All these towns and villages are serviced by local tree surgeons. Southwick householders can get tree surgery quotes by clicking here.

How to Locate a Tree Surgeon

Ways to Find a Tree Surgeon Near Me Southwick (BN42)

Of the different strategies available to search for local trades-people in Southwick such as tree surgeons, one that has been with us for many years is online business directories. They are the modern equivalent of the now largely outdated Yellow Pages, which almost everyone in Britain used to use to uncover local services. These days people look in Thomson Local, Touch Local, Mister What, City Visitor, Cyclex, Yell, Local Life, 118 118 and Yelp, though there are not any guarantees using this approach simply because pretty much anybody can advertise in these resources and having a listing is no assurance of the quality of their craftsmanship Internet trade portals are another way that you'll be able to to find a good tree surgeon, check out My Hammer, TrustaTrader, Checkatrade, Rated People, Local Heroes or My Builder, and it is on those that clients can submit reviews and testimonials regarding the quality of work undertaken and the tradesman that did it. Finally you might consider asking family, workmates and next door neighbours to suggest a tree surgeon they have used.

Tree Care Services Southwick

Find a Tree Surgeon in Southwick Here
Tree Surgeon Quotes Southwick West Sussex (01273)
  • Southwick Crown Thinning
  • Southwick Stump Grinding
  • Southwick Tree Reduction
  • Southwick Root Decompaction
  • Southwick Tree Maintenance
  • Southwick Tree Shaping
  • Southwick Tree Watering
  • Southwick Tree Planning
  • Southwick Stump Treatment
  • Southwick Arboriculture
  • Southwick Hedge Planting
  • Southwick Tree Management
  • Southwick Crown Removal
  • Southwick Tree Topping

Around Southwick

In the last few weeks, householders in the following Southwick streets have sent in enquiries about tree surgery: Gorringe Close, Green Field Close, Grange Road, King George Road, Waterdyke Avenue, Rectory Close, Franklin Road, Park Lane, Old Rectory Gardens, The Green, Westmount Close, Elizabeth Road, Oldfield Crescent, Southview Close, Southview Road, Meadway Court, Rectory Road, Larke Close, Roman Way, Middle Road, Roman Road, Kingston Lane, along with these postcodes BN42 4AB, BN42 4AT, BN42 4DG, BN41 1DT, BN42 4NX, BN42 4FH, BN42 4GR, BN42 4PQ, BN42 4NS, BN42 4RN. Work was conducted in these places by local tree surgeons. Southwick home and business owners received trusted and reliable tree surgery services on every occasion.

More Southwick Trades: Undoubtedly, when you happen to be having tree surgery done in Southwick, West Sussex, you will probably need other garden related services, and aside from a tree surgeon in Southwick, West Sussex, you may also need weeding in Southwick, garden designers in Southwick, pond installers in Southwick, fence builders in Southwick, garden wall construction in Southwick, driveway specialists in Southwick, landscaping services in Southwick, garden clearances in Southwick, lawn mowing services in Southwick, rubbish removal in Southwick, hedge cutting in Southwick, artifical grass in Southwick, garden shed installers in Southwick, local SKIP HIRE in Southwick, patio installation in Southwick, decking fitters in Southwick, and other different Southwick tradespeople.

Tree Surgeon Jobs Southwick: Find Southwick tree surgeon jobs here: Tree Surgeon Jobs Southwick

To obtain local info relating to Southwick, West Sussex click here

Tree Surgery BN42 area, (dialling code 01273).

(Sourced from tree surgeons Southwick text version two.)

TOP - Tree Surgeon Southwick

Tree Surgery Southwick - Tree Surgeon Southwick - Vegetation Control West Sussex - Arboriculture Southwick - Tree Felling Southwick - 01273 - BN42 - Tree Surgeons Southwick - Tree Management Southwick

TREE SURGEONS UK

(This tree surgeons Southwick content was written on 04-08-2022)