Tree Surgeons Ashburton

Ashburton Tree Surgery and Tree Care Services

Ashburton Tree Surgeons (TQ13): There are many properties in Ashburton which have gardens with trees. While trees are important for a healthy ecosystem, and are also nice to look at, they do need a certain amount of care and attention. They can become overgrown, be affected by disease, and in some cases need pruning and other regular maintenance tasks. Damaged, diseased and old trees can be a hazard to both buildings, vehicles and the public, if they become loosened on windy days, and branches get broken off. If you have trees growing on your property in Ashburton, it's your obligation to take care of them.

Ashburton Tree Surgery Quotes

If you happen to be a gardening fanatic there will likely be quite a few tree care processes that you can tackle yourself, notably with fruit trees, smaller trees, bushes and hedges. If they can be accessed from ground level, overgrown branches can be pruned and clipped without too much hassle, and these are jobs that you could certainly have a go at if you have an appropriate tools, are self-confident and know what you are doing. You should however call in the professionals if larger, more mature trees are involved that will require climbing or ladders.

Tree Surgeon Ashburton Devon

There are numerous risks involved with working at height, and apart from you falling and injuring yourself, you could also drop branches or tools that harm anyone standing or walking underneath. If you can visualise yourself teetering perilously up a tree brandishing a razor sharp handsaw or powered-up chainsaw, that ought to be enough to put you off the idea once and for all.

Your initial thoughts might be that a gardener would be the best person to call for your tree care requirements. But generally speaking, gardeners aren't qualified to deal with tree felling or larger tree related tasks. The tradesperson that you really need is a tree surgeon, who'll have all the right tools and equipment for any sort of tree care work. In accordance with the scale of the work needed, and the type and size of trees that you've got in your garden in Ashburton, some special tools like chainsaws, wood chipping machines and harnesses, could be necessary.

A genuine Ashburton tree surgeon will be a qualified arborist, will be acquainted with using such machinery and tools and will hold certain accreditations. Although many people in Ashburton will profess to be tree surgeons, make sure you hire one who has these certifications:

  • CS39 (NPTC 308) - Aerial cutting of trees using free-fall techniques.
  • CS31 (NPTC 203) - Fell and process small trees up to 15 inches (380mm) in diameter.
  • CS38 (NPTC 206/306) - Climb a tree and carry out aerial rescue.
  • CS30 (NPTC 201/202) - Chainsaw crosscut & maintenance.

Tree surgeons should also hold the qualification Forestry First Aid Level 3 FAW+F. It's crucial that all specialist tree surgery in Ashburton conforms to British Standards BS3998 (2010) guidelines.

When you are doing research to uncover a decent tree surgeon in Ashburton, you should be on the lookout for these basic qualifications at the very least. If the person you are considering doesn't have any of these accreditations you should look elsewhere. Ashburton tree surgeons with more experience may also hold a City & Guilds or similar qualification in things such as woodland conservation & ecology, arboriculture, forestry, countryside management or forest management.

Tree Surgeons Ashburton (TQ13)

A wide variety of different tree related work can be conducted by a properly qualified tree surgeon in Ashburton, including tree felling, the protection of trees from grazing, disease identification, tree removal, tree surgery, pest control, tree planting, transplanting and stump grinding.

For most home owners in Ashburton this will most likely involve crown raising, crown thinning, storm damage restoration, tree felling, crown cleaning, crown reduction, pruning or root pruning.

It's vital that all Ashburton tree surgeons are acquainted with, and skilled in the use of loppers, winches, harnesses, rigging plates, climbing ropes, chain saws, rigging ropes, lowering pulleys, pole saws, stump grinding machines, slacklines, wood shredders, and the whole range of tree surgery tools and equipment. If the individual you have chosen turns up with just a handsaw and a ladder, get rid of them and find someone more qualified.

Click For Tree Surgery Quotations in the Ashburton Area

Before you do any significant work on your trees in Ashburton, you should make certain there is not a Tree Preservation Order (TPO) on any of them. If you make contact with your local authority, they will inform you whether any trees on your property are covered by a Tree Preservation Order. You could ask your tree surgeon to help with this process, any reputable one will be glad to offer advice and guidance.

Tree Surgery Ashburton (01364)

You'll need to locate a dependable tree surgeon in Ashburton, once you have decided that you require expert help with your trees. The ways to accomplish this are many and varied. You can a get recommendations from neighbours or friends. You can search for the websites of local Ashburton tree surgeons on the web. You can find out what the trade portals provide you with by submitting your requirements on Rated People, Trustatrader or Bark. You can check out the Yellow Pages or your local newspaper. This should leave you with a few alternatives, and a list of potential tree surgeons in the Ashburton area.

To make certain that you get the absolute best tree surgeon in Ashburton, you could opt for a contractor that is approved by the Arboricultural Association. You can then be confident that your chosen tree surgeon has been checked and accredited for:

  • Effective customer service and business management.
  • Compliance with legislative requirements and arboricultural contracting.
  • Working standards, operations and knowledge.
  • Development and training.
  • Compliance with arboricultural health and safety requirements.

You should avoid jack-of-all-trade type people in Ashburton, who offer to chop back your trees, and clean your roof, mow your lawn or jet wash your driveway. Also stay clear of cowboys, cold callers and rogue traders, who don't know anything about tree surgery techniques, but will 'have a go' regardless. This work is hazardous, as we've previously stated, and should never be tackled by people who are not trained or qualified.

If you do not employ somebody who's knowledgeable, permanent damage could be inflicted on your trees, which is something I'm positive you'll want to avoid. If you aim to maintain the health of your trees, stick with the experts, because lopping, pruning or treating trees in an improper way or at the wrong time of the year can have serious implications.

Local Tree Surgeons Near Ashburton Devon

To give you a rough idea of what your tree surgery project is going to cost, you should always get at least three or four quotations from different tree surgeons in Ashburton. This will provide you with a choice of tree surgeons in Ashburton, although you should not simply base your choice on price alone (i.e. go for the cheapest).

You should always ask plenty of questions, and from the answers that they provide, your should get an idea of how much they know. Tree surgeons should be insured for a minimum of £2 million, so make certain that they have the appropriate insurance coverage, and also establish that everything you'll need is included in the price quoted. One of the vital things that you will want to establish is whether waste removal is included in the price. They are going to generate lots of branches and waste, so make sure they'll take this away for you.

It might also be advisable to ask for some references from former customers. They'll be thrilled to supply references and possibly even pictures of work they've completed if they're a trustworthy company. To find out how a company functions and how content its clientele are, you could also take a look at it's Facebook page (if it has one).

Click For Tree Surgery Quotes in Ashburton Devon

Local Ashburton tree surgeons will most likely have the dialling code 01364 and the postcode TQ13. They will work in Ashburton itself, together with nearby areas such as Caton, Broadhempston, Woodland, Sigford, Rew, Combe Cross, Hele, Denbury, South Knighton, Forder Green, Bickington, Ashburton Down, Buckfast, Alston Cross, Horridge, West Ogwell, and these postcodes: TQ13 7BG, TQ13 7AH, TQ13 7RA, TQ13 7QT, TQ13 7FJ, TQ13 7QJ, TQ13 7EP, TQ13 7DH, TQ13 7EL, TQ13 7BN.

If you need this kind of service it is unquestionably far better to bring in a reputable tree surgeon. Ashburton property owners can greatly benefit from the skills and knowledge offered by a trained professional.

Obtaining Help and Information

Whenever you're trying to find a decent tree surgeon in Ashburton, there are a few questions that you should ask to be sure that they are both competent of doing the task, and will not cause any permanent damage to your trees. Suitable questions should include: Do you have membership of a professional association (such as The International Society of Arboriculture or the Arboricultural Association)? Does your work comply with the British Standard (BS3998)? Can you provide me with an estimate in writing? Do your team and you have the correct qualifications and certifications (for using chainsaws and tree care)? Are you able to give references from past clients? Do you have employment and public liability insurance? If your tree surgeon doesn't provide you with satisfactory answers to any of the questions, continue your search.

Tree Surgery Advice

To find lots of practical info about what to look for in a first-rate tree surgeon, as well as a searchable directory of certified tree surgeons in Great Britain, you need to visit the AA (Arboricultural Association) website. The International Society of Arboriculture (ISA) is another superb resource which boasts a "verify tree surgeon credentials" tool and a "find an arborist" tool. You're also able to find loads of information about tree surgery as a profession by going to the trusty old Wikipedia "Arborist" webpage here. To save a lot of time and effort you may also employ one of the trade portals such as Trustatrader or Rated People, where reviews are available and professional credentials have been already checked. Trustmark is a Government financed organisation which is also a quality place for identifying dependable contractors. Providing a level playing field of assurance and quality, Trustmark considers technical proficiency, customer service and exceptional trading practices.

Tree Preservation Orders & Conservation Areas Ashburton

You must make certain there is not a Tree Preservation Order (TPO) on any of your trees in Ashburton, before you do any serious work on them. You local planning authority is the place to go to determine whether there are Tree Preservation Orders on any of your trees. Local authority permission is needed if lopping, removal, wilful destruction, cutting down, topping, wilful damage or uprooting is planned on any tree which is subject to a TPO. Any reputable tree surgeon in Ashburton will be happy to help you with this process.

If you happen to reside inside a conservation area in Ashburton, you should consult your council about any tree surgery work that you intend to carry out, and if the tree involved has a diameter of over 75 millimetres (at a point 1.5m from ground level), you have to give your local council a minimum of 6 wks written notice. (Tags: TPOs Ashburton, Tree Preservation Orders Ashburton, TPOs (Tree Preservation Orders) Ashburton).

Woodland Clearance Ashburton

Woodland Clearance Ashburton (TQ13)

The clearance of woodlands in the Ashburton area must only be started after any regulatory measures and restrictions have been observed and established. To make certain all pertinent permits are gathered, land covenants and restrictions are enforced, and that all strategies for clearing the area are ecologically responsible, a qualified Ashburton tree surgeon should be employed to oversee and undertake the project.

A reliable company will collaborate with local and national woodland organisations and authorities and carry out a full site survey. If it is discovered that protected plant or animal life is on the site to be cleared, it may be necessary to move such flora and fauna, on approval from the appropriate authorities.

Due to the equipment used in woodland clearance, i.e. chipping, mulching and felling machines, it is highly cost efficient to employ a certified tree surgery company to take on the clearance.

The Skills to be a Tree Surgeon in Ashburton

  • Be able to work well with your hands.
  • Have patience and the ability to remain calm in stressful situations.
  • Have a good understanding of public safety.
  • Be mindful of the dangers and complexities involved in all aspects of the work.
  • Have the ability to maintain, repair and use equipment and tools.
  • To be able to undertake common tasks on a hand-held device or computer.
  • Physical skills such as movement and co-ordination.
  • The ability to work efficiently with others.
  • Be professional and able to complete work within the given timeframe.
  • Have a methodical and organised way of working.
  • Excellent customer skills.

The Use of Chainsaws


The most common tool that Ashburton tree surgeons use is the chainsaw. It is an effective and versatile tool, but in unskilled hands, also a dangerous one. Thanks to their ease of use and greater portability, petrol chainsaws are the most popular with professionals, although battery and mains versions are available. Where large tree stems and thick branches are involved, such heavy tree work demands the use of the most powerful petrol chainsaws.

Basically, a chainsaw consists of a motor-driven chain which has a set of sharp teeth for slicing through bark and wood. There are also a variety of designs of chainsaw, rear-handled for work at ground level (two handed), top-handled for working at height (and which can be used with one hand if required) and pole saws for hard to reach branches and long distance pruning.

You'll almost never find a tree surgeon in Ashburton who doesn't use a chainsaw, despite the fact that working at height a tree with a rapidly spinning blade in your hand is not is not the safest way to spend your day. All tree surgeons must be trained in the maintenance and safe use of chainsaws, and it is one of the key prerequisites for gaining membership of the AA (Arboricultural Association).

There are countless different makes and models of chainsaw, but the most popular ones used by professionals in the UK are Makita, Stihl, Hyundai and Husqvarna.

Tree Cable Bracing Ashburton

When a tree could be a hazard to nearby passers-by or property, or if it's showing signs of decay or damage, the tree may be offered extra support with a method known as cable bracing. Where highly valued or older trees in Ashburton are involved, cable bracing is generally used where it is unsatisfactory to chop down a tree or remove large sections that are unstable.

A cable bracing set-up could be effective in supporting any V-shaped forks, weak tree limbs and poor joints that may be an issue. Executing various kinds of bracing work, a tree surgeon will be equipped to use cables and rods to help mitigate structural stress, and hopefully prolong the life of veteran trees in Ashburton.

Cable bracing has the objective of offering a shock-absorbing and flexible means of support that's non-invasive and doesn't cause additional damage to the tree by drilling and bolting the branches. A risk assessment must be completed by a tree surgeon or arborist before any cable bracing work can begin. This is important to guarantee the safety of the tree and adjoining areas as the project proceeds. (Tags: Cable Bracing Trees Ashburton, Cable Bracing Methods Ashburton, Tree Cable Bracing Ashburton, Cable Bracing Ashburton).

Firewood & Logs Ashburton

Firewood Logs Ashburton

If you're wanting to buy firewood or logs in Ashburton, tree surgeons are normally a great source for this particular commodity. This is no great surprise, as tree surgeons spend most of their life chopping down trees and branches.

Some Ashburton tree surgeons will sell you chopped and seasoned logs which are dry and ready to burn, whilst others will be happy to give you branches and logs cost-free, because they usually have an excess of them to get shot of.

Logs with a moisture content of less than 20% are ideal for burning on your log burning stove or open fire, and these should have been dried out for twelve months or more. Tree surgeons in Ashburton will mostly have stocks of assorted hardwood logs and these are brilliant for a long, sustained burn which will throw out heat for three or four hours. If you are also able to lay your hands on a few softwood logs, these are great for getting a fire burning, and onto which you can chuck your seasoned hardwood logs once the fire is roaring. (Tags: Firewood Ashburton, Hardwood Logs Ashburton, Firewood and Logs Ashburton, Firewood Logs Ashburton).

Eco-Plugging Tree Stumps Ashburton

The customary technique employed for removing stumps by most tree surgeons in Ashburton is stump grinding. However, "eco-plugging" is becoming more popular as an easier and more affordable alternative to this procedure. Not only is this solution cheaper, but it can also be employed where stump grinding accessibility issues exist, in awkward and hard-to-reach locations.

Without affecting any nearby vegetation and trees, eco-plugging is an extremely effective treatment for killing off tree stumps. Eco-plugs can be employed in all weather and during any season of the year, and they eliminate the tree stump by destroying the whole root system. Containing a form of crystalline glyphosate herbicide which is suitable for treating a variety of tree species, eco-plugs work in 95-100 percent of cases.

Tree Pollarding Ashburton

Tree Pollarding Ashburton

Where a tree has noticeably grown too large for its present environment, it needs to be substantially reduced in size through a technique referred to as pollarding. The encouragement of cultivated features and the transforming of trees into certain forms or shapes can also be achieved by the pollarding procedure. Trees which grow alongside highways in Ashburton are sometimes pollarded, as are those used for boundaries and in hedgerows. As pollarded trees have got such a stark and bare appearance, and will never get back to their former shape, this method is not generally popular with those who adore trees. Tree species such as horse chestnuts, planes, maples, oaks, beeches, sycamores and limes are regular contenders for pollarding, and the beneficial aspect of this process is that trees that may otherwise need to be chopped down can be preserved for generations to come. (Tags: Tree Pruning Ashburton, Tree Pollarding Ashburton, Pollarding Ashburton)


Tree Surgery Safety Ashburton Devon

One of the principal considerations with doing tree surgery in Ashburton is the health and safety aspect, as it is a risky and dangerous undertaking if conducted incorrectly. If the so called tradesmen carrying out the work are untrained or inexperienced, there are many factors that can easily lead to damage or injury such as failure to wear cut resistant clothing (especially leggings and boots), an absence of head protection, neglecting to cordon-off the work area to protect pedestrians and vehicles, not using eyesight or hearing protection, little if any fall protection, in the shape of ropes, platforms and harnesses and falling timber and branches. Because of such incompetencies, potentially susceptible are the tree surgeon (person working in the tree), workers at ground level, the property owners, passing pedestrians, facilities on the street, nearby structures, the actual tree itself, garden features and fences, parked and passing vehicles.

Tree Surveys Ashburton

There are a variety of reasons why you could need a tree survey, and the most common is for property extension or development. If you are clearing some land in Ashburton which has trees growing on it, to prepare for the building of an extension to an existing property or a brand new house, you'll need to conduct a tree survey as set out by the BS5837 British Standards. Tree surveys in Ashburton should be handled by an accredited tree surgeon or arboricultural surveyor, and this holds true whether the survey is being conducted on either a private or public property.

If a tree survey is performed properly, it will generate a whole bunch of information about the trees within the area specified. For instance:

  • The species of trees.
  • The number of trees.
  • Recommendations for tree management.
  • The ages of the trees.
  • The physiological and structural health of the trees.
  • A unique reference number for each of the trees.
  • The existence of any TPOs (Tree Preservation Orders).
  • The expected lifespan of the trees.
  • The spread of branches to the North, East, West and South.
  • The height of each tree in metres.
  • The diameter of each tree (taken 1.5m above the ground).

If you are carrying out work on an existing home in Ashburton, and are not shifting the access points or service lines, or extending the footprint of the property, you will most likely not need to carry out a tree survey. (Tags: Tree Surveyors Ashburton, Ashburton Tree Surveys, Tree Survey Ashburton, Tree Surveys Ashburton).

Protecting Trees and Shrubs in Winter

While the winter weather conditions are rarely severe enough to warrant protecting your shrubs and trees, it is certainly worth considering as a precautionary measure. In fact, even shrubs, plants and trees that we generally consider to be hardy, can benefit from some added protection in the colder winter season.

Naturally where trees are involved it is high winds that can cause the biggest issues and although most trees will already have shed their leaves come winter, they might still be susceptible to damage in windy weather. If the weather in Ashburton is windy, and a tree on your property looks to be damaged or at risk of falling, it's wise to call in a tree surgeon to assess whether any remedial action is needed. Trees can also suffer damage due to heavy snowfall, so be on the lookout for damage in this type of weather. Some trees and shrubs, particularly recently planted ones, may need some protection from ice and frost, and a thick covering of mulch will help to keep the soil frost-free around their bases.

Tree Surgery Tasks Ashburton

Tree Surgery Tasks Ashburton UK

Ashburton tree surgeons will likely help with tree management in Ashburton, tree pest management Ashburton, tree shaping, stump removal, commercial tree surgery, tree watering Ashburton, landscaping Ashburton, stump treatment Ashburton, hedge laying, root pruning, tree maintenance, tree waste removal, root grinding, staking, vegetation management, crown lifting, eco-plugging in Ashburton, tree planting, tree work, tree planning, crown removal, tree felling, hazard assessment, forestry management, tree bracing Ashburton, hedge lowering in Ashburton, tree pruning, brush cutting services, woodland clearances, domestic tree surgery Ashburton, woodchipping Ashburton, woodland management, repair of storm damaged trees, retrenchment pruning, cable bracing and other tree surgeon services in Ashburton, Devon. Listed are just an example of the duties that are performed by local tree surgeons. Ashburton specialists will be happy to inform you of their full range of services.

Contact a Tree Surgeon Ashburton

Tree Surgeons Near Ashburton: Also find: Rew tree surgeons, Woodland tree surgeons, Broadhempston tree surgeons, Caton tree surgeons, Alston Cross tree surgeons, South Knighton tree surgeons, Forder Green tree surgeons, Combe Cross tree surgeons, Ashburton Down tree surgeons, Buckfast tree surgeons, Bickington tree surgeons, Sigford tree surgeons, Horridge tree surgeons, Denbury tree surgeons, Hele tree surgeons, West Ogwell tree surgery and more. All of these locations are served by tree surgeons. Ashburton property owners can obtain price quotes by clicking here.

Devon Tree Surgeons

Surgery Green Trees Care Near Me Devon 01364 Services Tree Surgeon Tree Tree Care Surgeon TQ13 Ashburton Surgeons

Around Devon you will likewise discover: Mortehoe tree surgeons, Winkleigh tree surgeon, Walkhampton tree removal, Kentisbeare tree management, Beer tree surgeons, Lifton tree removal, Yealmpton tree management, Landkey tree surgeon, Dartington tree management, Chittlehampton tree surgeon, Sandford tree care services, Dartington tree surgeons, Bishops Tawton tree surgeon, Kennford tree care services, South Tawton tree surgery, Broad Clyst tree surgeon, Hemyock tree surgery, Burlescombe tree care services, Thurlestone tree care, Chudleigh Knighton tree care, Bishops Nympton tree surgeon, Cornwood tree surgeon, Burlescombe tree management, Feniton tree removal, Georgeham tree care services, Burlescombe tree surgery, South Tawton tree management, Kenn tree surgeons, Woolfardisworthy tree surgeon, Bishops Tawton tree management, Denbury tree surgeons. There are numerous companies and individuals around the county of Devon who'll be delighted to assist you with tree surgery, and if you are unable to find someone acceptable in Ashburton itself, you should definitely be able to locate a tree surgeon nearby.

Ways to Locate a Tree Surgeon

Finding a Tree Surgeon Near Me Ashburton (TQ13)

Of the numerous methods available to search for nearby tradespeople in Ashburton like tree surgeons, one which has been around for many years is internet business directories. These are really the modern day equivalent of the now outdated Yellow Pages, which everyone in Great Britain used to contact services locally. In this technological age people look in Cyclex, Yelp, 118 118, City Visitor, Mister What, Touch Local, Yell, Local Life and Thomson Local, though there are no guarantees using this tactic because literally anybody is able to advertise in these directories and having a listing is not an assurance of the quality of the work they do One more favoured way for tracking down tradesmen in this computer age is to search through trade portals such as Checkatrade, My Builder, TrustaTrader, My Hammer, Local Heroes or Rated People, and the primary advantage of these portals is that they showcase customer reviews regarding each tree surgeon signed up to their site. The very last tip is to ask next door neighbours, friends and family if they are able to recommend a tradesman they have used.

Tree Care Services Ashburton

Find a Tree Surgeon in Ashburton Here
Tree Surgeon Quotes Ashburton Devon (01364)
  • Crown Thinning
  • Tree Management
  • Stump Grinding
  • Tree Felling
  • Tree Bracing
  • Tree Maintenance
  • Tree Inspections
  • Woodchipping
  • Tree Topping
  • Crown Lifting
  • Tree Cutting
  • Tree Planning
  • Tree Shaping
  • Woodland Management

More Ashburton Trades: Obviously, whenever you are having tree surgery done in Ashburton, Devon, you'll likely need other garden related services, and as well as a tree surgeon in Ashburton, Devon, you could additionally need hard landscaping in Ashburton, patio installation in Ashburton, garden shed installers in Ashburton, block pavers in Ashburton, local SKIP HIRE in Ashburton, decking specialists in Ashburton, soil drainage services in Ashburton, garden rubbish removal in Ashburton, garden design in Ashburton, pond maintenance in Ashburton, lawn mowing services in Ashburton, hedge cutting in Ashburton, garden clearances in Ashburton, artificial grass installation in Ashburton, weeding services in Ashburton, fencers in Ashburton, and other different Ashburton tradespeople.

Around Ashburton

Tree surgery quotes were recently asked for by householders living in the following Ashburton streets: Waterleat, Rock Park, North Street, Ballard Lane, Stapledon Lane, Lurgecombe, Dolbeare Business Park, Kemp Mews, Parkfield Barn, Rew Road, Roborough Lane, Hele House, Chase Hill Lodges, Place Lane, Amberley Close, Home Park, Hele Cross, Eastern Road, Roborough Terrace, East End Terrace, Bowling Green, Riversmead, Holne Chase, Kingsbridge Lane Mews, Sunnyfield, Bremridge, Emmetts Park, Old Totnes Road, and in these postcodes: TQ13 7BG, TQ13 7AH, TQ13 7RA, TQ13 7QT, TQ13 7FJ, TQ13 7QJ, TQ13 7EP, TQ13 7DH, TQ13 7EL, TQ13 7BN. These locations recently saw activity by qualified tree surgeons. Ashburton home and business owners received dependable and top quality tree surgery services on each occasion.

If you're interested in local information about Ashburton, Devon take a look here

Tree Surgeon Jobs Ashburton: Find Ashburton tree surgeon jobs here: Ashburton Tree Surgeon Jobs

Tree Surgery TQ13 area, 01364.

(Created with tree surgeons Ashburton text version two.)

TOP - Tree Surgeon Ashburton

Tree Surgeons Ashburton - Tree Surgeons Near Me - Root Removal Ashburton - Tree Management Ashburton - Stump Grinding Ashburton - Tree Care Ashburton - Tree Felling Ashburton - Vegetation Management Devon - Tree Surgery Ashburton


(This tree surgeons Ashburton article was generated on 04-03-2023)