Earls Barton Tree Surgeons (NN6) Northamptonshire: Trees are a crucial feature of many properties and gardens in Earls Barton, and they can transform a largely 2 dimensional landscape by adding structure, style and substance. This is all well and good, however when trees are diseased, neglected, or damaged by severe weather conditions like storms or flooding, issues can occur that will need to be sorted. If you need to have work carried out on your trees, the safest option is to consult an experienced tree surgeon in Earls Barton, for their advice and guidance prior to any work.
There is a major risk of damage to the trees, to property or to life, for people in Earls Barton who attempt to do tree work themselves, or by employing non-qualified personnel. However, even for trained tree surgeons who are aware of all the dangers, tree work is not entirely safe. Within the industry there are an average of 140 serious injuries and 3 deaths a year, making tree surgery among the most dangerous jobs in the United Kingdom.
A damaged or poorly maintained tree can also be a threat to life, with around 5 people per year being killed by falling branches and trees in the UK. If an injury, or damage to property occurs due to you hiring someone to do tree work, you may be liable to third-party compensation claims due to the consequences of your actions. This is why it is very important to employ a certified tree surgeon to carry out the work on your trees in Earls Barton. (Figures sourced from HSE).
There are two industry bodies that an experienced tree surgeon in Earls Barton should really be a registered member of. The membership and professional standing of any tree surgeon in Earls Barton can be checked out on the websites of both the International Society of Arboriculture and the Arboricultural Association. On this website you can check for membership of either of these 2 organisations, which gives the tree surgeon in question, recognised Approved ARB Contractor status.
You'll be able to make contact with these industry organisations for mediation and for guidance and help, if a problem arises at any point during the course of the tree work, or after it has been accomplished.
If anyone offers to provide you with a quote for any tree work and you are unable to find them on this directory, you should tactfully decline their offer of work and find an approved tree surgeon. It is best to get at least 3 quotations from different companies in the Earls Barton area, as soon as you've meticulously checked their professional memberships and accreditations. While getting these quotes you should ask the following questions, making it crystal clear that you need them to provide the answers due to the risks involved with tree work:
- Can you provide a NPTC/LANTRA certificate for the use of a chainsaw, and documentary evidence of your qualifications and professional memberships? It is required by law that any tree worker using a chainsaw must have NPTC/LANTRA certification. Qualifications might include National Diplomas and Certificates in Arboriculture.
- What level of insurance coverage have you got? Your tree surgeon ought to be able to produce an insurance certificate covering no less than £5 Million public liability, as stated by the ISA and AA.
- Can I inspect the quality of your work by contacting a person you have worked for recently? Doing an independent examination of any recent work is always advisable.
- Can you offer me a quotation in writing? Verbal quotes alone are not sufficient. Always get a quote in writing.
The written quote should include easy to follow details of the work being undertaken. It should indicate whose responsibility it is to remove waste, tree branches and stumps, and should also include specifics of any trees which could be protected, and the steps necessary to obtain permission to work on them. Unless you're a commercial business, you should also make certain VAT has been included on the quote. Realising that you have a responsibility for employing only trained people to work on your property and trees, is crucial. This is laid out by the "Common law duty of care responsibilities under the Occupier's Liability Acts of 1957 and 1984."
PRIOR TO WORK BEGINNING - The tree surgeon that you have selected in Earls Barton, will be able to look into whether any of your trees are under a tree protection order (TPO), and will check with the local authority if the go-ahead for any work is forthcoming. Even protected trees require maintenance in order to cut back old or dying wood and ensure the safety of the public, so finding a tree has protected status does not mean that work can't be carried out.
If your property in Earls Barton is located within a designated conservation area, the Local Planning Authority (LPA) will require at least six weeks written notice of any tree work you're planning to do. This notice is not required if the trunk of the tree is less than 7.5 centimetres in diameter when measured at 1.5 metres from the ground. If the pruning or thinning of a protected tree's branches are required in order to promote and sustain growth, written notice is also not necessary.
After assessing the health of the trees on your property, your chosen Earls Barton tree surgeon will decide on the appropriate treatments and how the best outcome can be safely accomplished. Your property, public areas and any section of neighbouring properties that could be affected by falling debris will all be given a full risk assessment. This stage will also establish the level of protection needed and the amount of operatives required. This could include a number of safety precautions along with PPE to ensure the safety of the general public and adjacent property.
ON THE DAY OF WORK - Cones, barriers and safety measures will be put in place before any climbing, cutting of branches or tree felling is started, to keep unauthorised persons and passers-by away from the area where work is going on. When there is the possibility of debris and branches crashing onto a public road, it may be necessary to briefly halt the traffic.
Varying levels of protection will be necessary for the tree surgeon depending on what tree work needs to be carried out. When doing basic work with a chainsaw, to avoid injuring the legs, hands and torso, they will at a bare minimum be wearing specialist protective clothing. Without exception, every worker involved in the operation should wear high-vis clothing, and eye and head protection.
Extra staff will generally be necessary to assist in the safe removal of high branches and heavy sections of tree trunk, particularly if working at height is involved, and where climbing equipment and ladders are being deployed. For the removal of waste materials, unhindered access to the work site will be necessary. So, it's a good idea to inform your next door neighbours, since a lorry or skip will need to be stationed as close to the work area as possible whilst the work progresses.
UPON COMPLETION OF WORK - All of the branches and waste will be hauled away and the area cleared of all debris, after all work has been concluded. Your tree surgeon should then sign off and provide you with a certificate of work done, especially when the trees are protected. Highways and footpaths can then be re-opened to the public, with any safety measures in public spaces being removed.
If you've got any problems or issues with the finished work, you should first address them with the tree surgeon in order that they can be fixed immediately. If your tree surgeon is a registered member of a trade body, you can receive help and guidance from the Arboricultural Association or the International Society of Arboriculture so as to come to a satisfactory solution, if there's any further dispute.
Local Earls Barton tree surgery services will likely have the postcode NN6 and the telephone dialling code 01604. They'll operate in Earls Barton itself, as well as nearby areas like Lower End, Wellingborough, New Barton, Billing Park, Ecton, Grendon, Sywell, Castle Ashby, Overstone, Little Billing, Mears Ashby, Great Billing, Northampton, Wilby, and these postcodes: NN6 0JB, NN6 0FE, NN6 0JG, NN6 0LQ, NN6 0LT, NN6 0LX, NN6 0LE, NN6 0JF, NN6 0JD, NN6 0EW.
For this kind of assistance it is unquestionably wise to employ a qualified tree surgeon. Earls Barton business and home owners can greatly benefit from the expertise and know-how offered by a trained professional.
Emergency Call-Outs Earls Barton
If you've got trees growing in your Earls Barton garden, there may be certain occasions when you have to contact a tree surgeon in an emergency. Several Earls Barton tree surgeons offer a 24/7 service, and when there are strong winds and gales, they generally experience a spike in emergency call outs. The likelihood of damage or injury is greater when the weather is gusty, with branches snapping off and plummeting to the ground, and occasionally even whole trees collapsing. Frequent issues that happen due to tree emergencies are cracked greenhouses, squashed sheds, broken garden furniture and damaged fences.
When substantial tree limbs break of and fall onto highways, railway tracks and public walkways, the local council in Earls Barton will also frequently need emergency tree surgeons.
Even when the emergency work has been completed, a tree that's lost branches may need to be "re-balanced", and this might be done for purely aesthetic reasons or because the tree will now be uneven, with an uneven weight distribution, maybe resulting in additional concerns. If you've got any of these tree related problems, you should not try to sort any of them out by yourself, and you must promptly get in touch with a local Earls Barton tree surgeon who offers emergency tree care services, so they can suggest the most effective plan of action. (Tags: Emergency Tree Surgery Earls Barton, Emergency Tree Services Earls Barton, Emergency Call-Outs Earls Barton, Tree Care Emergencies Earls Barton).
Dutch Elm Disease
Destroying tree stocks and killing many millions of precious elm trees right through Great Britain during the last fifty years or so, Dutch Elm Disease (Ophiostoma novo-ulmi) isn't so widespread now, as it was previously. Caused by a fungus called Ophiostoma novo-ulmi which is spread by the elm bark beetle (Scolytus), Dutch Elm Disease was introduced into the British Isles accidentally in the late 1960's from North America (Canada).
After arriving in the British Isles, it was swiftly spread through the transportation of elm products such as saplings, bark mulch, elm crates, and logs with the bark on. It wasn't just Great Britain that was affected by this horrible disease, as elm stocks were also ravaged in mainland Europe, North America and New Zealand.
Dutch Elm Disease typically first materializes in early summer, and the main symptoms are:
- Twigs with rings or spots in cross-section.
- New shoots that die back from the tips.
- Clusters of yellow leaves that wilt and then fall.
- A "shepherd's crook" reaction on affected twigs.
The spread of Dutch Elm Disease has been dramatically slowed by the felling and removal of dying, infected and dead trees, which has in essence removed the favourite habitat of the beetle. The propagation of young saplings which are resistant to DED is an ongoing project.
You can get hold of your neighbourhood tree surgeon for advice, if you are suspicious that you might have infected elm trees in your garden in Earls Barton, or you can put in a request for a diagnosis from the Tree Health Diagnostic & Advisory Service, for which there is a charge.
Trees affected - Ulmus and Zelkova.
Agent of spread - beetles of the Scolytus and Hylorgopinus genera.
Cause - fungi Ophiostoma Ulmi & Ophiostoma Novo-Ulmi.(Tags: Dutch Elm Disease Earls Barton, Spotting Dutch Elm Disease, Dutch Elm Disease Signs).
Tree Care Injuries
The work that is tackled by tree surgeons and tree care professionals in Earls Barton can be really hazardous. When work is being undertaken on trees, there is a clear risk of injuries to both operatives and passers-by, so all possible safety measures should be implemented.
It would appear (as reported by the HSE), that the use of chainsaws, falls from trees, and being hit by a falling branch or tree are responsible for the majority of fatal and serious injuries that are associated with tree work. In actual fact, arborists and tree care specialists are more at risk of serious injury than those involved in the construction industry.
The most commonplace tree surgery accidents are being struck by objects (trees, branches, cranes, ropes, grapple hooks etc), slipping from ladders and lifting injuries, in relation to insurance claims.
When work needs to be done on your trees, all this demonstrates the need for hiring a professional Earls Barton tree surgeon. In the tree care sector, most accidents can be attributed to inexperienced workers trying to carry out tasks that they aren't fully trained in, or capable of. Therefore, to avoid this kind of issue, always use a reputable and experienced company that has been working in the Earls Barton area for a number of years.
Tree Preservation Orders Earls Barton
Before carrying out any major work on your trees in Earls Barton, you must make sure that none of them have Tree Preservation Orders (TPOs) To check whether any of your trees are protected by Tree Preservation Orders, get in touch with your local authority. If one or more of your trees have Tree Preservation Orders, you are prohibited from undertaking wilful destruction, felling, uprooting, removal, lopping, topping or wilful damage, without written approval from the local authority. You could ask your tree surgeon to help with these checks, any reputable one will be glad to offer advice and guidance.
If you live in a conservation area in Earls Barton, and plan to conduct any work on a tree with a stem diameter of 75 millimetres or more, you have to give at least six weeks written notice to your local council.
Hedge Cutting Earls Barton
While the vast majority of work carried out by tree surgeons in Earls Barton involves the maintenance and care of trees and shrubs, the trimming of hedges is another process that they regularly carry out. Using a tree surgeon could be a big advantage when dealing with conifer hedges (Leylandii in particular), which can often grow too tall for most gardeners to cope with, needing specialist tools to manage successfully.
When a hedge is poorly maintained and neglected, it can become overgrown and out of control very quickly. If you prefer to have a hedge that doesn't take over your garden in Earls Barton, regular trimming is a must, and this is necessary not simply for visual reasons, but also to make your hedge much healthier.
You can help your entire garden to look tidier by neatly trimming your hedges. And if you are thinking about selling your property in the future, tidy hedges could even add some extra value. You can also get hedge trimming in Lower End, Wellingborough, New Barton, Billing Park, Ecton, Grendon, Sywell, Castle Ashby, Overstone, Little Billing, Mears Ashby, Great Billing, Northampton, Wilby, and Earls Barton, Northamptonshire.
The International Society of Arboriculture
Often simply referred to as the ISA, the International Society of Arboriculture has its headquarters in the United States of America, and is a non-profit organisation. Promoting the professional practice of arboriculture, the ISA is a membership association serving the tree care industry throughout the world.
Allowing those involved in the tree care sector to improve their skills, knowledge and arboricultural expertise, the ISA is firmly focused on education, technology and research, which it makes readily available through educational publications, events and services.
The AA (Arboricultural Association) became an associate organisation of the ISA after signing a 2016 agreement with them. This allowed the two associations to strengthen their relationship, whilst offering additional opportunities for anybody in the UK and Ireland who is a registered member of the ISA. AA members in the UK and Ireland now benefit from being part of a network of tree care professionals from all across the globe. Boasting over twenty two thousand members globally the ISA now has professional affiliates and associate organisations in South Africa, Australia, Europe, Asia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom.
Invasive Tree Root Problems Earls Barton
You could face problems when some trees that have really intrusive roots are growing too near to your Earls Barton dwelling. These issues could include damaged foundations, lifting patios and blocked drains, to name just a few. Species like sycamores, willows, elms and maples, are trees that have extremely intrusive roots.
If you happen to be planting new trees, make certain that they're placed sufficiently far from your sewerage pipes, paths, your home and patios, so that they will not lead to serious problems in the future. If existing trees are growing too close to your house and are causing some of these issues, you must get in touch with a tree surgeon in Earls Barton, to see what can be done.
If you want to avoid the chance of killing off the tree or severely harming it's health you really should not try to do this yourself and simply cut through any invasive roots. To successfully survive, a tree will still need to be getting enough nutrients and water, and a seasoned tree care specialist in Earls Barton will know precisely which roots can be cut, and which roots should be left.
Cracks in subterranean drains are frequently caused by shrub and tree roots, because a continuous source of nutrients and moisture is present in these settings. Blockages and joint failure can arise, when minute tree roots grow into a drainage system's joints, establish themselves and develop into massive root balls. To remove the offending roots, specialist root removal solutions will be provided by many Earls Barton tree surgeons, who will employ manual rodding, mechanical equipment or high pressure jetting. Invasive root removal services are also available in Lower End, Wellingborough, New Barton, Billing Park, Ecton, Grendon, Sywell, Castle Ashby, Overstone, Little Billing, Mears Ashby, Great Billing, Northampton, Wilby, and and of course in Earls Barton. (Tags: Drain Root Removal Earls Barton, Invasive Tree Roots Earls Barton, Problem Tree Roots Earls Barton, Tree Root Problems Earls Barton).
Chainsaws in Tree Surgery
The most dangerous and perhaps the most widely used tool employed by Earls Barton tree surgeons, is the chainsaw. Although battery and mains electric models of chainsaw are available, the most popular with professionals are powered by petrol, thanks to their ease of use and portability. Petrol driven chainsaws are really the only choice for the heaviest tree work, being very powerful and able to effortlessly slice through trunks and tree limbs of any dimensions.
Consisting of a revolving chain armed with a set of sharp teeth that slice through the branches and wood, a chainsaw is actually a relatively simple tool. There are also different designs of chainsaw, pole saws for hard to reach branches and long distance pruning, top-handled for working at height (and which can be operated single handedly if required) and rear-handled for work at ground level (must be used with two hands).
You'll almost never find an experienced Earls Barton tree surgeon who does not use a chainsaw, although climbing a tree with a rapidly twirling blade in your hand is not is not the safest way to spend your day. Being fully trained in the maintenance and safe use of chainsaws is a primary requirement for any tree surgeon, and is vital before they can even be considered for approval by the ISA or the AA (Arboricultural Association).
There are countless different makes and models of chainsaw, but the most popular ones used by specialist tree surgeons in the UK are Hyundai, Makita, Husqvarna and Stihl.
Air-Spading Earls Barton
There are various issues that can impact on the health of your trees, and the root system is one of the places to look whenever something is worrying you. Easy accessibility to your tree's roots will be necessary for a local tree care specialist in Earls Barton to check for soil compaction, root rot and other plausible issues.
Because of the likelihood of root damage during the process of digging down, this was tricky during the past. A technique known as "air spading" is used by some contemporary tree surgeons in Earls Barton, and this allows compressed soil to be broken down and blown away by means of compressed air, which does not cause any harm to the tree's root system.
When the soil around the stem of a tree gets compacted by heavy foot traffic, passing vehicles or construction work, the general health of the tree can be affected in a negative way. Because of a lack of nutrients and water, a tree can become "stressed", rendering it more prone to attacks by insects, pests and diseases. There can also be problems with root flare, where the flare around the base of a tree gets covered with too much soil, causing the tissue to break down, and heightening the possibility of root rot. Air-spading is useful for correcting this.
Involving the use of an air-spading tool and an air compressor, this process blows air into the soil at high speed (1,200 mph), this breaks it up by entering any voids in the soil, but has no effect on the tree roots or nearby utilities. All the compacted soil is forced away from the tree's roots by the highly powerful flow of air, meaning immediate inspection and investigation can take place. A much looser layer of wood chips and fertiliser can then be introduced to revive the tree, and a resolution implemented for any issues.
Protecting Trees in the Wintertime
Even though the winter weather conditions are seldom harsh enough to warrant protecting your shrubs and trees, it's definitely worth considering as a precautionary measure. Even the most hardy of plants, trees and shrubs can find it challenging during wintertime, and a touch of added protection in times of intense cold will definitely benefit them.
Although most of your trees will have already shed their leaves by winter in Earls Barton, it's strong winds that cause the biggest concern, and despite the fact that they may offer less wind resistance, they could still be damaged. If you are concerned about the condition of a tree, or it seems like it may topple over, you should speak to a tree surgeon to check it out and conduct a risk assessment. You can also have problems with trees due to heavy snowfall, therefore when weather like this is predicted, be on the lookout for potential damage. A thick layer of mulch round the base of shrubs and trees (in particular recently planted ones), can help in keeping the roots frost-free and preventing them from becoming dehydrated.
Latest Tree Surgery Projects
Mr and Mrs Garcia are looking for somebody in Broughton, Northamptonshire who can do some shrub trimming and hedge cutting. Miss Evie-Grace Benson in Finedon wants somebody who'll remove about six conifers of 150 - 200mm diameters. In Warmington, Tyler and Natalie Richmond are on the lookout for an expert who'll completely remove a beech tree and a conifer, and chop back several other conifers. Corey Lyons was looking to get an insurance quote from a tree surgeon in Great Houghton who can undertake the pollarding of several trees along a pathway in the garden of his detached property. Mr Ralphy Wakefield from Broughton, Northamptonshire needs to find someone who'll cut a high hawthorn hedge down to a height of six feet and remove all the waste. Mikey Cook was seeking a tree surgeon to cut back 5 conifers and dispose of all the waste material in his garden in Hartwell. Mr and Mrs Mccluskey are looking for a reliable tree surgeon to trim a beech tree which has overgrown a neighbours gardenin their detached house in Ringstead. Mrs Lilly Glenn was hoping to get an estimate from a tree surgeon in Nether Heyford who can remove and ethically dispose of a thirty foot monkey puzzle tree in the garden of her farmhouse.
Tree Surgery Tasks Earls Barton
Earls Barton tree surgeons can generally help you with hedge reduction in Earls Barton, tree lightening protection, removal of storm damaged trees, in Earls Barton, stump treatment in Earls Barton, forestry management, pollarding, dead-wooding, eco-plugging, root flare exposure in Earls Barton, the protection of trees from grazing animals in Earls Barton, arboriculture Earls Barton, retrenchment pruning Earls Barton, monitoring of tree health Earls Barton, tree fertilising Earls Barton, stump grinding, tree management Earls Barton, crown lifting in Earls Barton, tree lopping, tree care in Earls Barton, Earls Barton, damage restoration, woodland clearances Earls Barton, hedge lowering, staking, tree replanting, commercial tree care, , tree pest control in Earls Barton, hazard assessments in Earls Barton, damaged tree removal, shrub maintenance Earls Barton and other in Earls Barton, . Listed are just a handful of the tasks that are undertaken by local tree surgeons. Earls Barton specialists will let you know their full range of services.
Tree Surgery Courses - Training - Apprenticeships Earls Barton
For those who love the outdoor life, going into a job in a profession like tree surgery can be especially rewarding and satisfying. Upon investigation, you'll learn that there are several paths into a career in tree surgery including possibilities such as enrolling for a college course, being accepted into a tree surgery apprenticeship, taking a university course, beginning at the bottom (perhaps as a groundworker) and working your way up or signing up for a private course. Tree surgery apprenticeships in Earls Barton can be applied for while you're still at school, when they are on offer locally. Throughout the British Isles, there are college and private courses in tree surgery, and individuals of any age can register. Students with the appropriate qualifications (generally 1 to 3 "A" levels) can strive for higher national diplomas, degrees and foundation degrees at university, in any of the various related fields such as woodland ecology & conservation, arboriculture, forestry, forest management and countryside management. If none of the above are up your street, it might be possible to gain some tree surgery experience by getting involved in voluntary work for organisations and groups such as the Tree Council, the Forestry Commission, the Woodland Trust or the National Trust. This short article was intended to assist anybody trying to find out "how to become a tree surgeon in Earls Barton", hopefully it has helped you learn what you wanted. You can find out a lot more info on how to become a tree surgeon on the National Careers Service website.
Tree Surgeons Near Earls Barton: Also here.: Wilby tree surgeons, Mears Ashby tree surgeons, Little Billing tree surgeons, Billing Park tree surgeons, Great Billing tree surgeons, Ecton tree surgeons, Overstone tree surgeons, Northampton tree surgeons, Grendon tree surgeons, Sywell tree surgeons, Lower End tree surgeons, New Barton tree surgeons, Wellingborough tree surgeons, Castle Ashby and more. The majority of these towns and villages are covered by certified tree surgeons. Earls Barton home and property owners and others can obtain tree surgery estimates by going
Northamptonshire Tree Surgeons
In the Northamptonshire area you will additionally discover: Easton on the Hill tree care, Great Doddington tree surgery, Welford tree surgeons, Nassington tree care services, Higham Ferrers tree management, Weedon Bec tree care services, Potterspury tree care services, Higham Ferrers tree care, Pattishall tree care services, Croughton tree care, Welford tree care, Barton Seagrave tree care, Finedon tree surgeons, Walgrave tree care services, Kings Cliffe tree care, Cogenhoe tree surgeons, Greatworth tree management, Wollaston tree management, Deanshanger tree care, Walgrave tree care, Kings Sutton tree management, Sywell tree surgery, Woodend tree management, Weldon tree surgery, Harpole tree care, Geddington tree care, Middleton Cheney tree care services, Towcester tree management, Harpole tree management. In every district of the Northamptonshire region you'll be able to track down tree surgeons who will provide you with high quality services for all your tree care needs. If you're unable to identify a suitablein Earls Barton itself you will doubtless be able to find one close by.
- Earls Barton Stump Grinding
- Earls Barton Wood Chipping
- Earls Barton Tree Pruning
- Earls Barton Tree Shaping
- Earls Barton Hedge Reduction
- Earls Barton Crown Removal
- Earls Barton Tree Management
- Earls Barton Site Clearance
- Earls Barton Tree Maintenance
- Earls Barton Tree Care
- Earls Barton Arboriculture
- Earls Barton Crown Cleaning
- Earls Barton Tree Removal
- Earls Barton Soil Terraventing
Around Earls Barton
People living in these Earls Barton roads recently needed a tree surgeon: Wilson Way, Townley Way, Mills Close, Tebbutt's Yard, Shoemakers Close, Berry Close, Manor Lane, Queen Street, Churchill Road, High Street, Mallard Close, Stevens Court, Knights Close, Grendon Road, Dowthorpe Hill, Mount Pleasant, The Pyghtle, Woodlands Grange, Park Lane, Broad Street, Baron Avenue, Keats Close, Whitworth Crescent, Burns Close, and in these postcodes NN6 0JB, NN6 0FE, NN6 0JG, NN6 0LQ, NN6 0LT, NN6 0LX, NN6 0LE, NN6 0JF, NN6 0JD, NN6 0EW. These locations recently saw activity by certified tree surgeons. Earls Barton householders were given reliable and top notch tree surgery services on each occasion.
More Northamptonshire Tree Surgeons: Bugbrooke, Weedon Bec, Desborough, Burton Latimer, Wollaston, Wellingborough, Rushden, Finedon, Irthlingborough, Corby, Northampton, Oundle, Billing, Thrapston, Raunds, Hinton, Long Buckby, Brackley, Middleton Cheney, Barton Seagrave, Earls Barton, Towcester, Kettering, Higham Ferrers, Daventry, Irchester, Brixworth and Deanshanger.:
For the best local Earls Barton info click here
Tree Surgery NN6 area, telephone code 01604.
(Created with tree surgeons Earls Barton text version four.)